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Nucleosides are prepared for oligonucleotide synthesis using 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl chloride for DMT-protection of the 5'-OH. The 3'-phosphoramidite functionality is achieved using a phosphitylating reagent in the presence of an activator, normally DIHT. For ribonucleosides, or other cases where the 2’ position is hindered - or where rapid reaction is required, a more reactive chlorophosphitylating reagent is used in preference.